-->

Uzbek tribes and genera

Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: Tajikistan, KyrgyzstanAfghanistan, Kazakhstan, China, Turkmenistan, and Russia. 

Uzbek tribes and genera

BARLASY

Ethnonym barlos known since the time of Genghis Khan. Rashididdin writes that chetyrehtysyachnoe army, which has provided Genghis Khan to his son Chagatai, was, in particular, of barlasov [1] and that, as dzhalairy, they were originally Mongolian tribe called barulos that is translated from the Mongolian means "fat and strong. " It also meant "commander, leader, a brave warrior" and was associated with the courage of military representatives from the tribe.

If the 30-40-ies. XIII century. barlasy and dzhalairy have yet Mongolian identity, had already been to 60 - 70 th he was. XIV century. they both have passed the process tyurkizatsii [2], primarily through the adoption of Turkic languages, as well as joining in the process of mutual assimilation with the local Turkic people, particularly in the area of concentration barlasov and dzhalairov in the Kashkadarya region.

Barlasy settled in Kashkadarya oasis in the first half of the XIV century. Spreading to other regions, they have been in the times of Amir Timur, who, as the very origins of the tribe, provided them protection. We know that after his death barlasy held the honorary position in the States Temuridov. For example, some of them, along with Baburom after the defeat of his forces Dashti kipchakskimi Uzbeks, went to India [3]. In the XVI century. barlasy lived on the left and right banks of the Amu Darya. By that time, the tribe has quickly grown from prisosedineniya to the other tribes, as the ally it was considered prestigious. But later, after the authorities Sheybanidov, barlasy lost ground.

In the time of the Khanate of Bukhara barlasov continued to semi-life and the cattle, while retaining its name and the traditional internal unity. This is manifested mainly in marriages between members of the tribe, as well as possessing a special eloquence, serves as a "calling card" of members of the tribe barlas.

Barlasy SHAHRISABZ, which is located next to the Samarkand region, in contrast, believe that their ancestors have lived a long time in Gissar, then returned to their homes - in Kashkadarya oasis. Among the villagers Yukori Taragay (Kashkadarya) there is a legend that in the past, they left this place and went on the Gissar whence came just at the beginning of the XIX century. According to other sources, that in the middle of the XVIII century. Mangit Muhammad Rahim carried about 20 thousand families barlasov on the territory of Samarkand and Shahrisabza [4].

In the southern regions of Uzbekistan are two kinds barlasov - oltibachcha and kalhofizi. Oltibachcha, According to legend, came from the six brothers. There are also such kind and knee, as kazibachcha, pulatbachcha, ahsakbachcha, nematbachcha.

According to the zoning in 1926, in Upper Kashkadare were registered 710 barlasov [5], and they lived in villages Saet, Hassan-tepa, Ommagon, Toshkalok, Aekchi, Honaka, Taragay. In these villages, these tribes lived as tolibbachcha, kazibachcha, nematbachcha [6].

At present, Samarkand, Kashkadarya areas remained barlasov ethnic names, but in other regions of Uzbekistan name barlos found only in the form of etnotoponima, such as village Barlas Sariasiyskogo area Surkhandarya region. A small group of kataganov village Katagan Kashkadarya region calls itself barlasami, and his place of residence is called barlostup.

Dialect barlasov refers to karluksko-chigilskomu dialect of the Uzbek language and its many features is close to the city govoram Uzbek language. However, this dialect has linguistic features that are found in partially kipchakskih dialects. But since Kipchak speech does not apply to the city say that we belong to an intermediate dialect barlasov between karluksko-chigilskim and kipchakskim, ie as a separate type of adverbs Uzbek language [7]

DURMANY

Datura - one of the largest and Uzbeks live births. Some of the durmanah can be found in the works of many Russian and foreign travelers, researchers late XIX - early XX century. [8]

As indicated in some of the sources, stramonium origin are the Mongol tribes. This is one of the ethnic groups, which in the XV century. participated in the election Abdulhayra Khan Uzbeks in Dasht-i-Kipchak, later supported Sheybani Khan and together they settled in the territory Maverannakhra [9]. A separate group of Uzbek-durmanov took part in the conquest of Balkh and Kunduz in the composition of troops Sheybani Khan in the Afghan Turkistan. Mentions that the first Uzbek ruler of Kunduz was stramonium Urus-back [10]. They tried to maintain its credibility and Dynasty Ashtarhanidov [11].

At the beginning of XX century. Uzbek-stramonium lived in different places - in Balkh (northern Afghanistan), Zarafshane, the upper basin of the Syr Darya and Khorezm.

In addition to the above areas, stramonium lived in villages Durman and Garau, located in the Gissar Valley (south of Regarda), in Kurgan-Tepinskom bekstve (Tajikistan), in the villages and Durmanpech Gishtmazar. Part durmanov lives in the village Hozhigi on the right coast Sherabaddari.

According to field material B. X. Karmyshevoy for 1959, 1964 and 1966., Thorn-apple fall into Gissar and kabadienskih. In addition, they are divided into four groups: uchurug, kiyannoma, gurdak and Saxony. In turn, uchurug divided into tibir, saltik, Karataev, konur, alatoy, zhamantoy, ahcha, oyuli. In kiyannoma includes kiet, cables, kutchu, zhertebar, togizalu, okkuyli, gurak-kozok, Nugaal, borboy set [12].

In 1924 it was registered in Gissar 5579 durmanov in Khorezm, in the area of modern Urgench - 1700. Stramonium also lived in widely different locations Zarafshan and Tashkent oases. For example, now in the district of Tashkent region Kibrayskogo meet etnotoponimy such as village Durman, Durman garden.

According to a comparative analysis of NG Borozny, which conducts special research material culture, economy and ethnographic peculiarities durmanov, geneonimy durmanov, like other Uzbek childbirth, like the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz geneonimy [13]. From this we can conclude that on the territory of Central Asia stramonium were also in the composition of Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, and Turkmens, to varying degrees, participated in the formation of these peoples. Their dialect belongs to the Kipchak narechiyu to use "f".

KANGLI

Kangli - one of many ancient ethnic groups, is part of the Uzbek, Karakalpak and Kazakh people. Ethnonym "kangli" mentioned in the annals Orhonskih (VIII century). As kengeress "in historical works of Konstantin Bagryanorodnogo (X cent.) Entitled" Kangars "in al-Idrisi (XII century). -" Hankakishi. These and subsequent authors believe that the name "kangli" formed from the name of a tribe or tribes.

According to SG Kliashtorny these ethnonym directly linked to China called "Kangyuy" [14]. But it should be noted that ethnonym "Kangyuy" of the Chinese annals, is the ancient name of the state, located in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya and the Aral Sea region.

Saki kangli ancestors were living on the banks of the Syr Darya. In the III. BC they created a large state Kang. In the II-I centuries. BC. e. and I-II centuries. Mr. e. the State occupied a huge territory, which included the Tashkent oasis, south-eastern Kazakhstan, Maverannahr, Khorezm, southern, southeastern and northwestern regions of the Aral Sea [15].

During this period as a result of the merger of Saks with hunami, usunami and other Turkic peoples, a new nation - Kangars, who were the most ancient indigenous Turkic layer formed in Central Asia. Kangarskaya culture emerged as a result of the two cultures - and semi-nomadic ethnic group (huny, usuny etc.) with the culture of the local population (Saki). Archaeologists call this culture kangyuyskoy culture.

In mid-V in. eftality caused major damage kangaram, resulting in the state last destroyed. Much of kangarov settled in Tashkent oasis and Maverannakhra. And semi-nomadic groups have settled in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya and around the Aral Sea, which established a union of tribes. In the historical sources, they were called kangli.

In the tombstone inscriptions Kul Tegin says that in 712 of kangli joined forces with Cool Tegin against the tribe turgeshov. By the 70 th he was. VIII century. in the vicinity of the middle and lower reaches of the Syr Darya, in the steppes of the Aral Sea region kangli came under the influence karlukov, Oguz and, in part, the Arabs [16]. At the end of the century kangli divided into two groups. One of them moved in the steppe areas in the north-west of the Aral Sea, the other - from an average flow of the Syr Darya in the north-east, in the upstream region of Talas and Chu, as well as in the Lake Balkhash. Group kangli, moved to the west, joined the Pechenigs in the north of the Caspian Sea and along the banks of the Urals, with the result that at the end of VIII - IX in the beginning. formed a major association Pecheneg-kangli. Thus, kangli have been composed of ethnic groups Pechenegs, Kivchagh and nogaev [17]. At the end of XIX - beginning of XX century. kangli part of the whites (оқ) and black nugaev (қора-нўгойлар) [18].

Before the invasion of Mongols kangli entered into an alliance with kipchakami in the middle of the XI century. Lived in the steppes in the vicinity of the Irtysh on the territory of the lower reaches of the Syr Darya and the Dnieper. The consequence was the displacement of Mongol invasions group kangli to the north, in the South Urals, and the assimilation of Bashkirs [19]. But some portion kangli continued kochevat in the steppes of the Caspian and Aral Sea, and became a member of the Kazakhs and karakalpakov. Kangli, living on the banks of the Syr Darya, oases of Talas and Chu became the settled population of Khorezm oasis.

In XII-XIII centuries. kangli participated actively in the political life of Khorezm. It says Abu-l Ghazi, to attack the Mongols in the Khorezm moved here 90 thousand members of the tribe kangli [20].

Before the Mongol invasion of individual groups kangli lived in the Zarafshan Valley. The sources mentioned that while in Samarkand was 30 thousandth army kangli [21]. Later (end XV - beginning of XVI century). Kangli part together with Sheybanihanom moved into the territory Maverannakhra. Prior to the XVII century. a large group of kangli lived in Khorezm [22]. In the following centuries, some of them assimilated with the local population. But before the beginning of XX century. Some of them maintained their tribal identity.

In the 70-80-ies. XIX century. in the county Kurama (Tashkent oasis) lived families kangli 1650 (or 8850 people.). Basically, they lived in counties Niyazbek, Тойтепа and Okdzhar. At this time kangli continued poluosedly way of life, engaged in farming and animal husbandry. However, according to the census in 1920, the county Kurama have been reported the existence of this ethnic group. At the same time maintain the same names of settlements, proof of residence here last tribe kangli. In the township Niyazbek two villages were called and continue to be called Kangli in Kushkurgaskoy parish was the village of Kizil-kangli in Bulatovskoy municipalities - the village Zhilkash-kangli and Bobo-kangli in the township Okdzhar - Village Oltmish-kangli [23].

In the 70-ies. XIX century. kangli were registered in Samarkand Dzhizakskom and counties [24]. According to the 1920, in the county lived Dzhizakskom 7700 kangli [25]. In the village Kangli, located in the 4 - 5 km from Jizzakh, lived more than 300, in the villages and Kangli Chambil Zaaminskogo district - 500, in the villages Birinchi-kangli and Ikkinchi-kangli, Sharkonli Gallaralskogo area Samarkand region - 50 kangli. According to the same census, in Samarkand the county were registered kangli 1200. They lived in villages Kangli Ishtyhanskogo and Dzhambayskogo areas. In Kattakurgan county on the slope of Aktau Hatyrchinskogo region lived 600 kangli.

In the Ferghana Valley (in the villages Bolgali-kangli, Irgaki-kangli and Kurgan-kangli) at the same time, it was reported kangli 6000 [26]. It is also known that in the villages of Katta-kangli and Kichik-kangli Hazaraspskogo district Khorezm region lived 500 kangli. Thus, in the first quarter of XX century. on the territory of Uzbekistan, 24 thousand people. belonged to the ethnic group kangli [27].

Kangli divided into several tribes and genera. In Zaaminskom, Djizak, Gallaaralskom areas, the Ferghana Valley and the Tashkent oasis kangli lived large offices, such as sarik (sari), bark (цоратўн-Is), ca (оцтўнли) кўк (кўктўнли) and қизил қангли.

We kangli living in Tashkent oasis, it was more generic subgroups: Bobo kangli, zhilkash kangli, oltmish kangli, tortuvli kangli, bodrokli kangli, tutash kangli etc.

Kangli resident in Kipchakskom Karakalpakstan and Khorezm region, were divided into the following groups: kangli bark, pishkakli kangli, beech kangli, ўрмончи kangli, irgakli kangli. Among karakalpakskogo people kangli divided into the following categories: Category kangli, irgakli, Osh-mail, tar s whether zhuvaksan, shomishli, kashular, urmanshi, оцилхўжа, tazatsangli, олтиўрток [28]. Tradition preserved in kangli living in Zaaminskom, Djizak, Gallaaralskom areas, confirms that most of them moved out of Khorezm. At the end of XVIII - beginning of XX century. kangli settled in Zarafshane, current Gallaaralskom and Zaaminskom areas [29].

In the language kangli collected items Karluks-chigilskogo, Oguz and Kipchak dialects. For many centuries, ethnicity ethno-cultural kangli maintained close contact with many ethnic groups (Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Karakalpak, Uzbeks). For this reason, the language was not registered a single dialect (speaking) kangli. They came under ethnocultural, linguistic influence of the ethnic groups in the composition of which were, and to some extent, assimilated with them. Groups that were part of the Uzbeks who spoke Uzbek (Turkish) dialects, and those that joined the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz - in the appropriate languages.

There are linguistic differences within those kangli, who joined the Uzbeks. K. Shaniyazov in their research argues that there is a slight difference in language kangli Tashkent oasis and kangli Ishty Khan, Gallaarala, Zaamin, Jizzakh and the Fergana Valley.

After the national divisions in 1924 kangli had not registered as a separate ethnic units by entering into of the titular nations.

KATAGANY

.One of the major ethnic groups of the Uzbek people - katagany - reside on the territory of Khorezm, Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Surkhandarya, Kashkadarya provinces and in the Ferghana valley in Uzbekistan. Katagany also live in the territory of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan.

While the origin of Uzbek-kataganov not been studied in a special study, details of this are scattered in different historical and ethnographic works. The first data on kataganah found in Rashididdina Fazlulloh Kazvini in one of its historical and ethnographic works "Zhome ut-Tavor" [30], which was written in the XIV century. Much information is contained in the writings of other eastern historians, such as Abu-l Ghazi, Muhammad Yusuf Munshi, Mahmud ibn Wali [31]. Important information about kataganah living in the area of Balkh (Northern Afghanistan), which is their homeland, are contained in the works Burhaniddin Khan Kushkeki. About kataganah Zarafshan oasis wrote AD Grebenkin. In NA Maeva essays written after the expedition Gissar 1872 and 1878 he worked. There are some important information about kataganah foothills Gissar Mountains [32]. In the scientific writings of IP Magidovicha, B. X. Karmyshevoy, SS Gubaevoy are important conclusion of the deployment of a territorial and ethnic history kataganov [33].

In the works Rashididdina and Abu l Ghazi provides information on the origin of the legendary character kataganov, stating that they came from the women on behalf of the Mongolian Alankuva tribal groups have nirun. Although Rashididdin calls kataganov Mongolian tribe, he noted that katagany - not the Mongol and Turkic tribes, which had just called a Mongolian.

Ethnic History kataganov quite complicated in the course of formation, they have been in close relations with many nations in Central Asia - Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Karakalpak. For example, Ciocana Valikhanov, speaking on senior Zhuze Kazakhs, said that one of its branches occurred kataganov main race of the second - uysuny, in the third - kangli. It referred to kataganov it relates to the composition of Dasht-i-kipchakskih Uzbeks. Scientific continues to believe that katagany - the oldest people living in the south of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. At the beginning of the XVII century. they constitute the main force supporting the governor of Tashkent - Tursun Khan, while in the middle of the XVII century. One of them became part of the Uzbek people, and the other - the Kazakh tribe chanishkli [34].

The emergence of kataganov in the composition of the Uzbek people, researchers associated with the tragic event: in 1628 Kazakh Ishim Khan killed the governor of Tashkent Tursun Khan, defeated and destroyed kataganov, which constitute the main force of the latter. Part kataganov joined the Kazakh tribe kangli name chanishkli, others fled to the south-west of the Syr Darya and joined the Uzbeks [35].

IP Magidovich believes that the Uzbek-katagany have a relationship with certain groups of the Kyrgyz. A kind of Kyrgyz-kataganov - saekah IP Magidovich writes: "Kin-Kyrgyz kataganov living in the north-eastern Afghanistan, belong to saekam. If we can identify their direct relationship with the Afghan and Bukhara Uzbekistan kataganami confirm that this is one of many ancient tribes, as well as tribes, known in China as "se", the Greeks and Persians - called "Sak" [36].

In written sources did not say that katagany were composed of tribes Dashti kipchakskih Uzbeks who participated in the conquest Maverannakhra under the Sheybani Khan. But there are sources of information that later, in the middle of the XVI century. They take their place in the Uzbek as an authoritative class.

According to historical records, 40-ies. XVII century. katagany was one of the strengths and volatile tribes living in Balkh and, in part, in Kunduz. This tribe is mentioned along with аймаками, Khazars, and other residents in northern Afghanistan [37]. In times of Ashtarhanidov Northern Afghanistan has been issued kataganam as ulus. At the same time katagany emerging as strong political union. At the beginning of the XVII century., During the rule of Mahmudbiya kind katagan Balkh and Badakhshan, the province became known as the edge kataganov. Thus, katagany living on a very large area - this is Central Asia, northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkey, and is one of many Turkic ethnic groups.

Katagany speak Kipchak and Karluks-chigilskom dialects Uzbek language, as evidenced by a number of ethno-linguistic studies [38]. Tohchi-katagany living in Surhan-Sherabadskom oasis and speak the dialect karlukov-chigiley to use "and" as Turks and Karluks. Their language is similar to vokalizm the Tajik language.

By the end of XIX - beginning of XX century. Uzbeks katagany well-preserved their ethnic name, and ethnographic characteristics. And to this day the whole village kataganov can be found in the southern regions of Uzbekistan - Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya. In Surkhandarya meets genus called tohchi-katagan. The material from the census in 1926 indicated that in the eastern mountains Kuhitang 1190 kataganov live in the region of middle Sherabaddari - 2695, in the upper Sherabaddari - 665, on the right bank of Surkhandarya - kataganov 1055. They also lived in Kashkadarya steppe in Zarafshanskom oasis, Khorezm, Ferghana Valley, Tashkent Chinaze oasis. At present, the names of places of residence kataganov moved to the names of settlements in the form of etnotoponimov. For example, in Шахрисабзском, Kasanskom areas Kashkadarya region, Samarkand, Khorezm region meet village makhalla guzary called Katagan. In Namangan preserved remains of the ancient settlement, which called Katagan-shed. Even some of the 12 gates of Tashkent called Katagan [39]. In the southern areas of the republic survived only ethnic names, but under the influence of ethnic obscheetnicheskih particular have become part of the cultural values and customs of Uzbek people.

KUNGRATY

Kungraty was one of the Dasht-i-kipchakskih Uzbek tribes. Area of distribution includes Surkhandarya, Kashkadarya and Khorezm region of Uzbekistan. Legends about the origin of kungratov found in the works Rashididdina "Zhome ut-Tavor (" Collection chronicles ") and Abu-l Ghazi" Shazharayi Turks "(" The Tree of the Turks "), written in the XIV century.

Many studies have suggested Mongolian origin kungratov. But B. X. Karmysheva in its research says: "For us, no matter what the origin of kungratov - Mongol or Turkic. Because of the different studies indicate that although the various ethnic groups are the Mongolian tribes, before resettlement Maverannahr at the beginning of the XVI century. They took the direction of Turkish Language, culture and ethnic composition "[40].

The status of kungraty different from other tribes, because Genghis Khan and his relatives married a daughter of the nobles kungratov2, thereby vozvyshaya the tribe over the other.

According to IP Magidovicha, the ancestors of most of Khorezm Uzbeks were kungraty lived up to settlement of the bulk of Dasht-i-kipchakskih Uzbeks. The Union of Kazakh kungratov was not established earlier in the XV. In the invasion on the same Sheybanidov Maverannahr involved not Kazakh kungraty and Union Khorezm kungratov [41].

There are other suggestions on how kungraty have settled in the territory of Uzbekistan. Researchers argue that Kashkadare and Surkhandarya to attack Sheybani Khan kungratov was not. But older kungraty argue that the truth about their homeland are Guzar-Baysunskie steppe.

We know that the epic kungratskogo ethnos "Alpamysh" are stories about people and their kungratskom Baysun-kungratskoy homeland. There Karakalpak, Kazakh, Khorezm and surhanskaya version of the epic. These events occur mainly in Baysun-Kungratskom province. Researchers argue that "Alpamysh" written a thousand years ago. If we accept this viewpoint, we can conclude that part kungratov to the XV century. lived in the territory Maverannakhra.

Some important information about kungratah found in many research works [42]. According skazaniyam themselves kungratov, aksakalom their tribe was Kungirat-ata or Kungirby, who from his first wife had four sons: Vaktamgali, Kushtamgali, Konzhigali and Aynni (Aynli). The sons are the founders of the birth kungratov. We Kungirat-date was still the fifth son of Tortuvli, who gave his younger wife. Thus, kungraty divided into five genera, each of which is divided into several smaller genera: 18 - at Voktamgali, 16 - have Kushtamgali, 14 - have Konzhigali, 12 - have Aynni and 6 - in Tortuvli. Total 66 deliveries, which are also divided into even smaller relatives family groups.

Many believe that the word "kungrat" comes from the merger of the words "kungir" and "al". X. Daniyarov writes that, according to some sources, the word is actually Mongolian and means "қорақарга (black crow) [43]. Old Surkhandarya argue that kungraty moved out of Kazakhstan: "We came from the back (" Arch zhurtdan kelganmiz). Indeed, many kungratov found among Kazakhs and, in particular, Karakalpak. TA Zhdanko of their scientific work (1950, 1974) showed the similarity of customs etnogeneticheskoe kungratov Khorezm, Karakalpakstan and the lower reaches of the Syr Darya. The fact that among the Karakalpak, Khorezm, Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya kungratami are genetically related, shows the identity of the birth of their composition. Some kungraty Sherabada (Surkhandarya region) believe that their ancestors migrated from the Khorezm, which complements the above [44].

There is also a similarity in the genealogy kungratov Khorezm and Bukhara East (ie the eastern part of the Khanate of Bukhara) [45]. TA Zhdanko in their studies also indicated that the genealogy karakalpakskih and Khorezm kungratov same.

We kungratov Eastern Bukhara, Khorezm their fellow and all karakalpakskih childbirth exactly the same eight ethnonyms: achamayli, bolgali, bogazheli, konzhigali, karakursak, koshtamgali, tortuvli and tugiz (togiz). Just the same five ethnonyms kungratov Bukhara and Khorezm Uzbeks-kungratov: Barak, Bob, zhilantamgali, karabura, leg. Since Karakalpaks match ethnonym ayinni, akpichak, baymokli, kozoekli, kazak, kaychili, kanchi, karabuyin, hag, kuldovli, kopish, kuyin, Kurama, Taraclia, Urus, handakli, chumichli, irgakli, etc. Thus, kungratov Eastern Buhara 13 ethnonyms coincide with the Khorezm kungratami and 132 - with karakalpakskimi [46].

Now consider the resettlement kungratov on the territory of Uzbekistan at the beginning of XX century. According to 1924 in Bukhara district were registered 3000 kungratov in Gijduvan county - 10 of 875 in the county Karman - 1370, in Guzar - 20 615, Shakhrisabz - 325, Sherabade - 23 164, Baysun - 9 890. According to these data, in the territory of the Khanate of Bukhara 14.5% Uzbek population was kungraty [47]. In the area of the lower reaches of the Amu Darya River was recorded 17 thousand kungratov [48].

According to V. Reshetov, the dialect of the Uzbek kungratov belongs to kipchakskim govoram use "f" [49].

While kungraty in East Uzbekistan have maintained their ethnic name, the division into small genus pozabyto..

MANGITY

The term "Mangit" the sources occurs as mankit, mankut. A Abu-l Gazihana "Shazharayi Turks" ( "The Tree of the Turks") refers to the grandson of Khan named Mankit. T. Nafasov believes that mangity - one of the ancient Turkic tribes, the largest ethnic unit, included in the Uzbek people. The word Mangit - Mango + Al-Ming. Mangat - the ancient name, affix "t" in the Altai language means the team. While the manga and Ming are the names of two tribes, the meaning and the principle of creation, they are identical. The definition is given according to the number of people. Transfer to ethnonyms toponyms occurred in XVII-XIX centuries. "[50]

About mangitah there are a number of ethnographic works [51]. However, the sources mentioned that the ancestors were mangitov Mongolian tribes living in Mongolia at the beginning of the XIII century. During the XIII century. They settled in Dasht-i-Kipchak. In XIII-XIV centuries. most of mangitov settled in the territory between the Volga and Ural. During this time, under the influence Kivchagh they have forgotten their language and adopted a Turkic-Kipchak speech. At the end of the XIV century. have created their own state - Mangitskuyu Ordu. In the middle of XV century. mangity called the "foot" (nougat), and the Horde - Nogayskoy horde. In the middle of the XVI century. Nogayskaya Horde divided into Large and Small Leg Leg. In a subsequent mangity of the Greater Nogaya entered the ethnic composition of the Uzbeks, Karakalpak and, in part, Kazakhs, and in the XVI century. moved into the territory of Uzbekistan. Under the cultural influence of the local Turkic peoples have long lived in Maverannakhra and engaged in farming, part mangitov gradually settled, the other part at the end of XIX - beginning of XX century. was semi-life, has livestock.

At the beginning of the XVI century. during displacement Sheybani Khan (grandson of the founder of the state of nomadic Uzbeks Abulhayr Khan) with Uzbek tribes in the south in their ranks and were mangity. About Muhammad Salih said: "There were many soldiers, Haji Gogi was kind of mangitskogo. There were 4 000 Uzbeks, all relatives among themselves. Among them were kungiraty, mangity, datura, ushuny and uyraty" [52].

In mangity mainly settled in the Zarafshan Valley, part of the Khorezm khanate, Karshi Steppe, Chardzhouskoy area on the left bank of the Amu Darya. Mangity were divided into several large and small tribes. The biggest mangitskimi tribes were: about manga fat mango, bark of mango, оч manga began manga boygundi manga Temir-Hodge, shoby, gavlak, bites, toz, karabayir, bakirchi, Kula, tamgali mango, Kazakh, unikki, chukay , galabatyr, beshkal, chebakchik, bonds, uvamy.

During the battle for power in 1753 Mangit Muhammad Rahim Khan conquered Bukhara throne and founded a dynasty Mangitov. This dynasty rules until 1920

As of 1924, the territory of Uzbekistan lived more than 130 thousand mangitov. Of these, about 100 thousand lived in Bukhara: the oasis of Bukhara and the District of Karshi - 44 thousand, in the lower Zarafshan - 8 thousand in the middle reaches Zarafshan-10 thousand, in the district Dihzak - 2 600 and in Khorezm - 10 thousand In addition, the Turkmen lived Chardzhouskom area of 11 thousand mangitov.

Most mangitov living in the wilderness, Karshi, Bukhara oasis, in the foothills and mountainous areas of the Samarkand region in ovtsevodstvom, in the first two parts of the razvodili karakul sheep. Mangity also engaged in farming. They had developed a little bit and hand craft (carpet weaving, weaving colorful fabrics, byazi, alachi, Kalami, etc.). Dlinnovorsovy carpet mangitov - zhulhirs - was very famous.

Said mangity to Kipchak dialect Uzbek language. But as a result of a merger with the people who speak karluksko-chigilskom dialect in some places mangity began to speak a mixed dialect, as evidenced by special studies [53].

While mangity partially preserved its ethnic name, ethnographic peculiarities become part of the ethnic culture of the Uzbek people.

Ties and A3

Uzbekistan and Al (I) - the tribes that took part in the formation of the Uzbek people. Regarding their ethnogenesis have conflicting opinions. For example, MM Ermatov [54] explains that the term "bonds" and "al" - is the name of one people. He believes that the title of "Uzbekistan" took place exactly on those terms. Based on this interpretation, a Russian scientist R. Ageyeva linked ethnic name "Uzbek" with the name of Khan's Golden Horde Uzbekov, who lived in the first half of the XIV century.: "According to some researchers, Uzbek name (as well as the ethnic name of" Uzbekistan " ) is derived from the names of the people "bond", "lake" that once the so-called Central Asia "[55].

According to K. Shaniyazova each tribal ties, and Al was a separate ethnic group [56]. First, on the bonds. In VI-VII centuries. ties were within the West Turkic Kaganate, and VIII in. - Composed of the Khanate Turkesh. In the 60-ies. VIII century. Or, more precisely in the 766 town, river basins and the Chu engaged Karluks who subjected a large part of uzov. Since that time Karluks involved in the formation of the Uzbek kind.

Another part of uzov, not subject to Karluks, moved to the Syr Darya, primarily in the desert on the left. It was at this time (VIII cent.) On the banks of the Syr Darya and in the deserts of the south-west and north of the Aral Sea has been established Union tribe oguzov (Goose). Later, at the IX century., The creation of the State Oguz. All of the tribes who lived in that territory, including bonds, were enslaved Oguz. Much of uzov, not subject to Oguz, retreated and make the north-west of the Aral Sea. Another part of uzov still live on the banks of the Syr Darya, separated from fellow retreated to the west.

Some groups uzov left to live on the banks of the Syr Darya, began to settle down, creating large cities and villages. Some have called your name. For example, the city is located between the left bank of the Syr Darya (Signak between urban and rural areas Barchinlikent) and the west - the river Yaik (Ural) called Uzkend. He survived until the XIII century. Two mound in the middle area of the Syrdarya called Ishki-Uzkend and Kirgi-Uzkend a lake - Uz.

One of the city, located in the upper Syr Darya (in the Ferghana Valley), in the early Middle Ages called Uzkend (Uzgan). But in the XI century. lived in Uzkende people from the tribe azgish (Al) [57]. So, in the mountainous areas in the north of the Ferghana Valley in VIII-X centuries. (may be, and even earlier) had to live ethnos bonds, later converted to a settled way of life.

Ties, moved to the north-west of the Aral Sea, in the middle of IX century. located between two rivers Emba and U il. There were tribes kangli and bizhanak (Pechenegs), while in the north-east - Kivchagh tribes and kimakov. Ties have become stronger and to wars of conquest with other tribes, primarily the bizhanakami.

Since those times, uzov began to refer to the Greek historians Konstantin Bagryanorodny (Hv.) Attiliet (X in.) Sklitsy (XI century.) Anna Komina (XII century). And other bonds also mentioned in the works Masudi (X in .) and the Armenian historian Matvey Edesskogo (XI century).. Konstantin Bagryanorodny writes: "With Pechenigs can fight only bonds, but with more troops and went to war with the Khazar" [58].

At the end of IX - beginning in X. in alliance with hazarami ties Pechenegs fought against and forced them to flee their homes. Bizhanaki deprived of their territory, passed on the right bank of the Volga River and settled in the southern Russian steppes. At the beginning of X century. bonds owned a large territory on the middle reaches of the Volga present, but not for long dominated here. In mid-X century. kipchaki who lived in the foothills of the Ural mountains, have begun to carry out regular raids. Most of the uzov not stand the onslaught Kivchagh, went to the desert and settled in the lands along the left bank of the Don. Right Bank belonged hazaram. Don was the boundary between them.

At the end of X - XI in the first half. bonds again attacked bizhanakov, who lived between the Dnieper and Don, and in 1043 won a significant portion of land in the east of the Dnieper. Ties and attempts on the territory that belonged to Russian princes. In alliance with kipchakami Russian princes opposed uzov. Ties under their onslaught in 1064 crossed the Danube on the territory of the Greek empire.

According to some reports, the Danube River have moved 600 thousand uzov. In the short term part of the Greek emperor was enslaved Alexei. The soldiers served in the Greek army, they allocated land to live. Another part of uzov not subject to local authorities and settled in the northern part of the Greek empire, continued offensive action. After fighting in the 80's. IX century. They did obey the Greek empire. In a subsequent ties, scattered on the territories of several states on the banks of the Danube, mingled with local people and forgot their ethnic name. It is possible that Gagauzi (actually "uguzguz"), who live in Moldova, Romania, Hungary and the Balkan mountains, and are direct descendants of those very uzov.

Some groups uzov in X-XI centuries. moved into the territory of Asia Minor and became part of the local Turkic peoples. In the archival material empire Usmonli (XVI-XVIII centuries.) Meets ethnonym karauz. Interestingly, in the vicinity of the average River Zarafshan, mainly in Payarykskom area, one of the Uzbek group called the "karauz. This example clearly shows that the early ancestors karauzov members of the karauzov and Uzbeks settled in Turkey, are among the people (of uzov). Later, during the centuries of historical events, karauzy spread and became part of several Turkic peoples, including Uzbeks and Turks, usmanli. Their relatives, most of these Gagauzians, and now living in Moldova.

In Western Europe, moved only one part uzov. Much more of their living in the southern Russian steppes. In the second half of XI - the first half of XIII century. in Kivchagh who lived in the territory, composed and bonds. In the time of the Mongols (XIII-XIV centuries.) A significant portion Kivchagh moved into the desert left the Volga River, and more - in the steppes of Dasht-i-Kipchaka. Since then a large part of uzov joined the Kivchagh.

In the deserts along the middle reaches of the Syr Darya, in the early Middle Ages were nomadic pastoralists, there were also ties, the following generations that survived until the XVI-XVII centuries. In the middle of the XVIII century. they migrated to the northern slopes of the mountains Nuratinskih. Some groups uzov, which decreased the number of cattle settled in the oasis Zarafshanskom and began farming.

Part uzov dealing with livestock, moved in the Karshi steppe and its continued occupation of traditional animal husbandry. Ties, lived in the Karshi steppe and Zarafshanskom oasis, referred to in the letters of Bukhara Amir Haidar Khan (1800-1826) and the list of 92 Uzbek tribes, drawn up in the XIX century. At the beginning of XX century. the bonds are registered and in the lakayskih Uzbeks living in Tajikistan.

The bulk of uzov still live in the territory of Uzbekistan and to maintain its ethnic name (bonds). They are mainly located in rural areas Harduri, Taloktepa, Shurabozor, Utamali, Hushaholi, Maylidzhar and other villages Karshi steppe. Some groups uzov living in the Navoi region, and management Kattakurgan Ulus district.

In the formation of the Uzbek people to actively participate and ethnicity al. Their ancestors lived in the foothills of the Altai and the Sayan Mountains, the Tuvan territory and were composed of tribal union body. At 709 was one of the Turkic khans Magilan seized land scratch, and in 716 of his brother Kultegin inflicted a crushing blow to them. Then scratch ethnicity lost their independence and they were divided into several groups. One group left its territory and settled in the Chu Valley. These basics are mentioned in the works of Ibn Hurdodbeka and Gardizi (XI century).. According to information given to the sources, the ABC, who settled in the Chu Valley, became part of the tribal union turgesh. VV Bartold Relative to the basics azgisham, which is a branch turgeshev.

In 766 of Karluks took Semirechje area, including the valley of the river Chui. Some basics Karluks submitted to and remained in these lands, others moved to the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, the desert near the Aral Sea. As we mentioned above, a large group lived in the town of Azov Uzkend (Uzgan) and its environs. One group was left to scratch their ancient homeland - in the foothills of the Altai and the Sayan Mountains. Under the name of Al, tert-Al (turt-az), Al-deti (etti al) are now preserved in the composition of the Altai people, as the Altai-kizhskie teleuty, telechi and other Turkic ethnic groups in the region.

The term Al (and a lake, the bonds) is found in the names of places and rivers of the Altai and the Yenisei. As mentioned in the history of the state Yuan - Yuan-shi, set up in the XIII century. Mongols in the north of the river Kyan (Who Enasay), it was the area under the name of the Constitution.

Ethnos al (Lake, al-Saray) survived to the present day and lives in Samarkand and Kashkadarya areas, while maintaining their ethnic name.

Based on the above-mentioned data can be argued that the bonds and Al (Lake) is the name of two different ethnic tribes, remnants of which remain to this day.

YUZY (ZHUZY)

Yuzy - one of the large Uzbek tribes. At the end of XIX - beginning of XX century. they live in two places: in Surhane and Gissar Valley lived gissarskie yuzy, in the steppes of Zarafshan and Syr Darya - uratepinskie yuzy.

According to X. Daniyarova, yuzy considered the largest and many come in 92 Uzbek tribes and genera. Perhaps yuzov credibility among the people has increased, after many members of Mingo, another major Uzbek tribe, urban, and forgot their tribal origins. According to information gathered in Tashkent, Samarkand and Syrdarya, yuzy are divided into three major groups: brand Bola-si, korabchi, razhab bolasi [59].

Mark, in turn, is divided into uya-Solin and hitoyizi (hitoy yuzi). Uyas divided into six parts: kerayt, feces, Norina uyas, okchepkan, bites, boymokli (chupkon). They mainly live in Bekabadskom, Zaaminskom, Djizak, Gallaaralskom areas. Solin is divided into seven parts: davlay, zhobuvchi, Togai, tubi, kirsodok, lapkarach, shodmon tubi. All soliny live in Syrdarya and Djizak areas.

Hitoyizi divided into 10 tribes: kurikozon, tigirik, beshkubi, bogmachchoyi, hozhibolasi, mugol, was dismissed hozhibachcha, hanhodzha, karakursak, sortzhuzi. Basically, they live in the Syr Darya, Djizak areas and Gallaaralskom, Bulungurskom parts of Samarkand region, in part, in the Surkhandarya region.

Representatives of a large group yuzov - korabchi live in Tashkent, Syrdarya, Samarkand, Ferghana, Andijan region. Kukan Bayautskom live in an area kushtamgali, ochamayli, parchayuz, uyuvli - in Bekabadskom, Gulistan, Zaaminskom, Bayautskom, Gallaaralskom areas and Kashkadarya region.

The group yuzov razhab bolasi includes several tribes, such as tuekli, persons, begizhuz, cholzhuvut, beshkal, mostly living in the Syr Darya and Samarkand.

In addition, some yuzov belonging to a tribe zhuz with Turkomen, sometimes called turkman, lives in Bekabadskom district of Tashkent region, Syrdarya region Zaaminskom and Farishskom areas Dzhizak region, Nuratinskom, Gallaaralskom, Payarykskom, Hatyrchinskom and Ishtyhanskom areas Samarkand region, Shurchinskom, Denauskom, Saryasiyskom, Uzunskom parts of the Surkhandarya region. Surhandarinskie Turkmen-zhuzy have 16 births, and are divided into two groups: zhilontamgali and vohtamgali.

The question of the origin of the genus group yuzov (zhuzov) rather complicated. Date of their resettlement in Gissar not known. Different groups yuzov, such as brand, korabchi Well-zhuzy Turkmens, settled in Gissar not at the same time. In Djizak and his district are to some extent preserved relationship with Kazakhs in dialect and culture. This is due to the fact that Maverannahrskom Bank Syrdarya lived large group of Kazakhs settled there after their extermination dzhungarami in 1723 is well known that some Kazakhs returned to their homeland, while others remained in Maverannakhra and mixed with the Uzbeks.

NA Maev writes that the mark moved from Uratepy and Dzhizaka in 1866 [60] But B. X. Karmysheva argues that this year "from Dzhizaka and Uratepy mark moved to connect with relatives, settled earlier" [61].

The emergence of ethnonyms Naiman and bogonali in the composition of the brand and korabchi shows its accession to the latter group naymanskogo origin. This happened after the naymany moved into Gissar and Jizzak, beginning with the XVII century.

Turkmen-zhuzy, a tribe is a subgroup yuzov, settled in Gissar earlier. Local people also felt their Aboriginal land considered their territory, and called Turkmendasht. In Denau was well fortified castle, which they long ruled. Turkmen-zhuzy sedentary and korabchi. Some of them are mixed with Chagatai, but has fewer features Mongolian than kungraty [62].

As its name, dialect, the physical structure and way of life of the Turkmen-zhuzy part of the group of Uzbeks Dashti Kipchak origin. This is evidenced by the similarity of their subetnonimov with the relevant units kungratov (such as voktamgali, kazioekli, bolgali, tarahli) naymanov (voktamgali, kazioekli, zhilanli).